Cavitation is the formation of air or water vapor bubbles in the flow field when the dynamic pressure changes rapidly. Air bubbles, however, are not effective in enhancing the jet performance. When the pressure falls below the vapor pressure, the water flashes into vapor (usually thought of as cold boiling) and forms bubbles. Since the bubbles form around the jet, initially the cluster appears like a doughnut. Downstream from the dynamic pressure change, the entire cross-section is filled with bubbles. When these bubbles reach the target, the jet pressure increases (stagnation pressure) and the bubbles immediately start to disappear (this is called ‘collapse’ or implosion). Experimental and theoretical considerations have shown that when this happens, very high-speed jets (called ‘microjets’) are formed on the target at the point of collapse.
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